Research-related coursework

Take advantage of research-related coursework to prepare for a successful research experience. Many departments at Wayne State offer courses that can help you acquire skills in research methods, learn about research or creative work in a specific field, gain hands-on experience with research techniques through lab work, or receive mentorship and supplemental instruction to support your own research or creative project.

*Note: Please consult either the course bulletin or talk with your department advisor to learn about other research-related coursework offered in your field of study. Check the course bulletin (http://www.bulletins.wayne.edu) and schedule of classes (http://www.classschedule.wayne.edu) for further details about course availability and prerequisites.

In alphabetical order by subject code:

      A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

Course ID Course title Course description
ANT 5210 Anthropological Methods Intensive introduction to research methods, techniques and issues in anthropology. Students engage in a research experience supervised by the instructor, write a field journal, and complete a final exam. Exercises focus on data collection, data management, and data analysis. Techniques include participant observation, fieldnotes, and interviewing. Students learn how to use software packages employed by anthropological researchers in the computer lab.
ANT 7200 Qualitative Research I Qualitative methods techniques and research design. Students conduct independent field research and learn data collection methods.
AH 5997 Seminar Readings, discussion, and research paper on special topics in art history; topics to be announced in Schedule of Classes. Graduate students undertake research paper in addition to other assignments.
AFA 7850 Seminar Development and practice of the research process and effective writing skills.
AGD 5250 Graphic Design III: Complexity and Variety in Design Complex design situations. Research and methodology. Project may include package design, instruction manuals, book and brochure design, publication design.
AGD 5997 Graphic Design IV: Systems, Series, and Advanced Studies in Visual Communication Extended student projects such as identity systems with various applications, families of package design, series of form design, or poster series. Possible collaborative projects; extensive research.
AID 3200 Ethnographic Research Methods for Designers Introduction to a set of theoretical and methodological approaches stemming from the field of anthropology. Students utilize these approaches to enrich and inform their design processes from conceptual creation, to ideation and design development, to user testing.
ASL 5180 Sculpture: Advanced Technology One major project which explores the application of non-traditional materials and technologies: research, industrial liaisons, equipment.
BA 2300 Quantitative Methods I: Probability and Statistical Inference Measures of central tendency and disper­sion. Introduction to probability; normal, binomial, uniform, and Pois­son distributions. Statistical inference and sampling methods. Computer techniques.
BA 3400 Quantitative Methods II: Statistical Methods Uses of statis­tical techniques in business. Topics include: sampling, hypothesis testing, confidence interval estimation, regression, analysis of vari­ance and chi-square tests. Application to accounting, market research, finance, production and forecasting. Computer techniques.
BA 4990 Directed Study Advanced readings and research under supervision of faculty mem­ber, in area of special interest.
BE 2100 Basic Engineering III: Probability and Statistics in Engineering An introduction to application of probability theory and statistical methods in engineering, including design and manufacturing.
BE 2550 Basic Engineering IV: Numerical Methods and Computer Programming Core principles of computer programming and applications in design and implementation of numerical methods to solve engineering problems.
BIO 3990 Directed Study The following courses are recommended as prerequisites for BIO 3990; BIO 2220 and BIO 2600 prerequisite and BIO 3070 at least concurrent with the enrollment in BIO 3990. If you are interested in enrolling in a directed study, please use the following guidelines: Step 1: Go to the lab website and read about the research in the lab. Each faculty member will have their own webpage. http://clasweb.clas.wayne.edu/Biology/Directory Step 2: Decide if this is interesting to you Step 3: If you are interested in a faculty member's research, apply/ inquire with the faculty member. You should apply several months before you wish to start your directed study. Step 4: Complete the Directed Study worksheet (available in the department office) and submit to the Biology department for the appropriate override. Additional step for students working with non Biological Sciences Faculty: - If you are working with a professor from another WSU department, you must first submit a brief summary/proposal of your research via email for approval. If your project is approved, you will need to submit your research forms for permission to register. You can email your proposal to kwalk@wayne.edu. (This is done before step 4) Notes: It is up to you and the faculty to agree upon a plan of work. It will also be up to the faculty member to determine the number of credits for the directed study. Keep in mind, the faculty member is NOT required to accept you as a directed study student. You are NOT guaranteed the opportunity to do a directed study. Ideally you should be able to devote a minimum of 12 hours or more per week to the lab work. There is not a linear relationship between the number of credits taken and the amount of time invested in the lab work. Duration: Some professors will likely want two or more terms of effort, but some may not. You will need to discuss this with the faculty member when you are determining if you will work with them on their research. Criteria for grading: -do the lab work successfully -maintain a lab notebook with all protocols, data, thoughts, etc. permanently recorded -analyze the data, using statistics if called for -write up your results
BIO 4110 Biomedical Technology and Molecular Biology General principles of molecular biology of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Includes structures of DNA, RNA, and protein, DNA replication and repair, transcription and translation, gene regulation and gene expression. Emphasis on applications in medical biology and biotechnology. Fulfills General Education Writing Intensive Course in the Major requirement; each student writes reports and one long research paper on topic approved by instructor, in addition to other course writing requirements.
BIO 4120 Comparative Physiology Physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Comparison of major physiological systems across groups of organisms. Lab consists of physiology exercises and lab reports that allow students to explore major conceptual themes in physiology. Fulfills General Education Writing Intensive Course in the Major requirement; each student writes reports, and one long research paper on topic approved by instructor, in addition to other course writing requirements.
BIO 5040 Biometry Quantitative methods in biology. Statistical approach to data analysis and the design of experiments. Laboratory section permits actual analysis of selected statistical problems.
BIO 5180 Field Investigations in Biological Sciences Field studies of one to fifteen weeks, emphasizing biological principles and techniques demonstrated in the field.
BIO 5996 Senior Research The following courses are recommended as prerequisites for BIO 3990; BIO 2220 and BIO 2600 prerequisite and BIO 3070 at least concurrent with the enrollment in BIO 3990. If you are interested in enrolling in a directed study, please use the following guidelines: Step 1: Go to the lab website and read about the research in the lab. Each faculty member will have their own webpage. http://clasweb.clas.wayne.edu/Biology/Directory Step 2: Decide if this is interesting to you Step 3: If you are interested in a faculty member's research, apply/ inquire with the faculty member. You should apply several months before you wish to start your directed study. Step 4: Complete the Directed Study worksheet (available in the department office) and submit to the Biology department for the appropriate override. Additional step for students working with non Biological Sciences Faculty: - If you are working with a professor from another WSU department, you must first submit a brief summary/proposal of your research via email for approval. If your project is approved, you will need to submit your research forms for permission to register. You can email your proposal to kwalk@wayne.edu. (This is done before step 4) Notes: It is up to you and the faculty to agree upon a plan of work. It will also be up to the faculty member to determine the number of credits for the directed study. Keep in mind, the faculty member is NOT required to accept you as a directed study student. You are NOT guaranteed the opportunity to do a directed study. Ideally you should be able to devote a minimum of 12 hours or more per week to the lab work. There is not a linear relationship between the number of credits taken and the amount of time invested in the lab work. Duration: Some professors will likely want two or more terms of effort, but some may not. You will need to discuss this with the faculty member when you are determining if you will work with them on their research. Criteria for grading: -do the lab work successfully -maintain a lab notebook with all protocols, data, thoughts, etc. permanently recorded -analyze the data, using statistics if called for -write up your results
BIO 6020 Methods of Analyses Introduction to bench work techniques and research design in molecular biology. Design and execution of experiments in molecular biology. Topics include: laboratory safety, scientific documentation, database searching, development of experimental protocols, error analysis, solutions and buffers, electrophoretic separation of proteins and nucleic acids, basic immunohistochemistry, bioimaging, and scientific ethics.
BIO 6990 Honors Directed Study The following courses are recommended as prerequisites for BIO 6990; BIO 2220 and BIO 2600 prerequisite and BIO 3070 at least concurrent with the enrollment in BIO 6990. If you are interested in enrolling in a directed study, please use the following guidelines: Step 1: Go to the lab website and read about the research in the lab. Each faculty member will have their own webpage. http://clasweb.clas.wayne.edu/Biology/Directory Step 2: Decide if this is interesting to you Step 3: If you are interested in a faculty member's research, apply/ inquire with the faculty member. You should apply several months before you wish to start your directed study. Step 4: Complete the Directed Study worksheet (available in the department office) and submit to the Biology department for the appropriate override. Additional step for students working with non Biological Sciences Faculty: - If you are working with a professor from another WSU department, you must first submit a brief summary/proposal of your research via email for approval. If your project is approved, you will need to submit your research forms for permission to register. You can email your proposal to kwalk@wayne.edu. (This is done before step 4) Notes: It is up to you and the faculty to agree upon a plan of work. It will also be up to the faculty member to determine the number of credits for the directed study. Keep in mind, the faculty member is NOT required to accept you as a directed study student. You are NOT guaranteed the opportunity to do a directed study. Ideally you should be able to devote a minimum of 12 hours or more per week to the lab work. There is not a linear relationship between the number of credits taken and the amount of time invested in the lab work. Duration: Some professors will likely want two or more terms of effort, but some may not. You will need to discuss this with the faculty member when you are determining if you will work with them on their research. Criteria for grading: -do the lab work successfully -maintain a lab notebook with all protocols, data, thoughts, etc. permanently recorded -analyze the data, using statistics if called for -write up your results
BME 2920 Biomedical Engineering Design Lab IV Application of engineering principles to biomedical engineering problems through laboratory and design exercises. Fourth of a six-semester sequence; tissue biomechanics, introduction to finite element modeling. All students participate in CITI training related to responsible conduct of research, human subjects, and animal subjects.
BME 4010 Engineering Physiology Laboratory Measure­ment and analysis of physiological signals on living systems, with focus on neural, cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems. Includes a student-designed experiment on a physiological system.
BME 4910 Biomedical Engineering Capstone Design I First in a two-semester sequence during which student teams develop a design to address a biomedi­cal engineering challenge; includes discussions with clinical faculty, analysis of current solutions, and finalization of conceptual design.
BME 4920 Biomedical Engineering Capstone Design II Second of a two-semester sequence. Students develop and test a prototype of their biomedical engineering design; culminates in a public design expo to exhibit stu­dent designs.
CE 4990 Senior Design Project Capstone design experience through civil engineering projects.
CHE 3220 Measurements Laboratory Laboratory course in the principles and practice of measuring chemical, physical and thermodynamic properties of importance to chemical engineer­ing problems. Technical reports.
CHE 5050 Statistics and Design of Experiments Application of modern statistical experimental design methods to improve effective­ness and success in experimental projects, in chemical industry manufacturing, and research and design.
CHE5809 Research Preparation I Provides mentoring to junior-level chemical engineering students as they seek undergraduate research projects.
CHE 5811 Research Preparation II Course follows the progress of senior-level chemical engineering students as they conduct undergraduate research projects, and provides mentoring on areas such as research presentations and proposals.
CHE 6810 Chemical Engineering Research Project Mentors senior chemical engineering students as they complete an undergraduate research project. Methods of research and analysis and interpretation of data. Preparation of a final research presentation and written report.
CHM 1040 Chemistry Skills and Reasoning Reasoning and mathematical skills needed for development of a scientific approach in chemistry.
CHM 1230 General Chemistry I Laboratory Laboratory course to introduce the scientific method, properties of materials, the role of energy, structure and spectroscopy.
CHM 2999 Honors Research Problems in Chemistry Prereq: CHM 1240/1250 or CHM 1410; consent of chairperson. Research projects under the direction of a senior faculty member.
CHM 5160 Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Application of modern instrumental methods to quantitative analysis. Methods that relate instrumental response to chemical concentrations or content. Calibration, data handling, and data evaluation. Emission, flame, infrared, Raman, fluorescence, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mass spectrometry. Electrochem­ical methods. Chromatography.
CHM 5998 Honors Thesis Research in Chemistry Open only to declared chemistry or biochemistry majors admitted to the Honors College. Original investigation under the direction of a faculty member. Students must submit a thesis or manuscript in publication format and complete an oral examination with a designated thesis committee.
CHM 5999 Senior Research in Chemistry Open only to declared chemistry or biochemistry majors. Original investigation under the direction of a faculty member. Students must submit a thesis or manuscript in publication format in order to receive a final grade.
CHM 6740 Laboratory Safety Discussion and demonstration of safe laboratory practice. Use, storage and disposal of ordinary and hazardous substances; personal protection devices; regulations and codes.
CLA 5990 Directed Study Directed independent research in depth on a topic or author not treated in the regular classics offerings, cul­minating in a course paper.
CLS 3100 Basic Techniques: Microscopy Specimen collection, preparation, and examination of urine and other body fluids such as spinal fluid, semen, and synovial fluid.
CLS 3080 Instrumentation Lecture and Laboratory Introduction to fundamental laws of electronics, the theo­retical basis of instrument design, and quality control in laboratory testing. Application of instrumental methods, including spectropho­metric, flurometric, electroanalytical, and chromatographic methods to the clinical laboratory.
CLS 3280 Clinical Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Methodologies and interpretations of results of clinical chemistry diagnostic tests.
CLS 3090 Professional Practice Introduction to pre- and post-professional practice, education methodologies for the lab, intro to research in the field, ethics, and critical thinking in the lab.
CLS 3380 Basic Cytotechnology Technique Introduction to basic laboratory methodology including microscopy, laboratory safety, pipetting, quality control/assurance, specimen collection and handling, laboratory statistics and calcula­tions, and selected laboratory instrumentation.
CLS 4250 Laboratory Techniques Basic techniques common to testing in clinical laboratory disciplines. Safety policies and regulations. Calculations necessary for preparation of solutions. Specimen collection and handling. Preparation of blood and fluid smears and staining techniques. Microscope use.
COM 4210 Research Methods in Communication Studies and Public Relations Quantitative and qualitative research methods designed to advance knowledge about human communication across applied settings and diverse contexts.
COM 5260 Professional Writing Workshop For students and professionals who want to improve freelance writing skills, and for graduate stu­dents who want to publish academic research in popular magazines and journals.
COM 5310 Investigative Reporting Advanced reporting techniques involving use of Freedom of Information Act and computer-assisted data base searches; accessing public records.
COM 5510 Societal Effects of New Technologies Capstone course for media arts and studies majors in studies track; must elect in last 21 credits prior to graduation. Theoretical and practical research on the social functions and effects of the mass media.
CRJ 3710 Legal Writing for Criminal Justice Basic elements of legal research; the law library and finding the law; case analysis; statutory analysis; constitutional analysis; writing legal memorandums; writing legal briefs; persuasive writing.
CRJ 4860 Research Methods in Criminal Justice It is a course that covers the major criminal justice data sources; various designs for research in the field of criminal justice; how to collect data; and the primary analysis and application of descriptive and inferential statistics in criminal justice planning and evaluation.
CSC 6710 Database Management Systems Data models, normal forms, relational systems and SQL, query optimization, object-oriented systems, object-rela­tional systems, student Oracle project.
ECE 5001 Advanced Design in Electrical and Computer Engineering Design con­cepts and techniques; design, fabricate and test prototypes; current status of the technology; final written report.
ECE 5002 Research Projects in Electrical and Computer Engineering Individual or team research projects. Literature survey on current topic; proposal for projects; final written report required.
ECE 5170 Design of Human Rehabilitation Systems Design, fabrication and testing of custom­ized hardware to aid handicapped patients.
ECO 4991 Research in Economics Economic research on an appropriate topic of the student's choice, conducted under faculty supervision.
ECO 4997 Senior Honors Research Individu­ally arranged meetings with faculty member to discuss research methodology and readings in areas of research selected by instruc­tor. A senior honors essay of a length proportionate to the selected topic will be required.
ECO 5020 Fundamentals of Economic Analysis I This course assumes good knowledge of first semester calcu­lus, and teaches additional mathematics necessary for Ph.D. study in economics, and (to a lesser extent) teaches some economic implica­tions; course content includes: matrices, vectors and linear algebra; partial and total derivatives; scalar and vector functions; Jacobian derivative matrices and determinants; implicit function theorem; derivatives of implicit functions with one or more endogenous vari­ables; unconstrained maximization with two or more variables; Lagrangians and constrained maximization; envelope theorem; dif­ferential and difference equations, and systems of differential and dif­ference equations.
ECO 5100 Introductory Statistics and Econometrics Elementary probability theory, discrete and continuous probability distribution, sampling distribution, interval estimation, hypothesis testing, and estimation and inference in simple and multiple regression models.
EDP 5630 Research Readings in Applied Psychology Introduction to research methodology in school and community psychology and counseling psychology.
ENG 3010 Intermediate Writing Course in reading, research and writing for upper-level students. Emphasis on conduct­ing research by drawing from the sciences, social sciences, human­ities, and professions in preparation for Writing Intensive courses in the majors.
ENG 3085 Introduction to Rhetoric and Writing Introduction to theory and practice of rhetoric and writing studies. Attention to the scholarly study of persuasive discourse and role of rhetoric in English studies.
ENG 3090 Introduction to Cultural Studies Introduction to the theories and practices of cultural studies. Examination of key theoretical terms and debates, to be put into critical practice through readings of various cultural forms.
ENG 3100 Introduction to Literary Studies Open only to Liberal Arts and Sciences and College of Education English majors. Methods of reading, responding to, analyzing, and writing about texts, for students majoring in English Studies.
ENG 3800 Introduction to Creative Writing Introduction to the practice of creative writing in traditional genres (verse, prose, drama) and also mixed forms. Attention to the place of creative writing in the study of literature and culture. Frequent individual conferences and class critique of student writing.
ENG 5992 Senior Seminar Open only to undergraduate English majors; should be taken in last year of course work. Prereq: 12 credits in ENG above the 1000 level. Study and discussion of topics to be announced in the Schedule of Classes. Each student produces a substantial research paper.
ET 3850 Reliability and Engineering Statistics Probability, hypergeometric, binomial, Poisson, and normal probability distribution; confidence intervals; inferences concerning means; linear regression; introduction to statistical quality control and reliability; use of computers.
ET 4999 Senior Project Student designs, builds, and tests product; philosophy of design. Project pro­posal to be submitted by second week, final outcome to be com­pleted by thirteenth week; progress reports, and oral presentation required.
FIN 4990 Directed Study in Finance Advanced readings and research or tutorial under the supervi­sion of a faculty member in areas of special interest to student and faculty member.
FPC 5500 Topics in Art in Community Role and function of art and the artist in community, accompanied by a required community-based learning project. Top­ics and nature and location of community projects vary from term to term.
GEO 3100 Environmental Systems Analysis Application of a common framework to quantitative analy­sis of fluxes, storage, and transformation of matter and energy within environmental systems. Applications include carbon cycling, nutrient cycling, air and water pollution, and population dynamics.
GEO 4860 Research Independent laboratory and field work.
GPH 3020 Spatial Organization: Concepts and Techniques Introduction to spatial organization concepts, survey research proce­dures and statistical techniques. Topics include: geographic prob­lems, research design, models, data sources, sampling, questionnaire design and descriptive statistics.
GPH 3600 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems Theory and application of computer-based systems for the analysis and rep­resentation of spatial data.
GPH 4600 Advanced Geographic Information Systems Application of GIS to analyses of spa­tially-referenced data.
GPH 6420 Quantitative Techniques I Statistical inference with emphasis on applications including central tendency, dispersion, hypothesis testing, correlation and regression.
GPH 6700 Geographic Information Systems Principles and applications of GIS, including spatial statistics, com­puter graphics, computer cartography.
GSC 3600 Operations and Supply Chain Management Analysis of the production and supply chain systems. Identification of problems and solutions in these systems. Topics include: forecasting, production planning and scheduling, quality control, cost control and inventory control.
GSC 4900 Directed Study in Global Supply Chain Management Advanced readings and research or tutorial under supervision of faculty member.
GSC 5680 Operations Strategy in a Global Environment Analysis of prob­lems in production/operations management. Application of quantita­tive models to the solution of these problems. Topics covered are decision analysis, aggregate systems, inventory control, material requirements planning and PERT and CPM; emphasis on competing in a global marketplace, quality management.
GSC 5996 Advanced Topics in Operations Management Analysis of problems in production opera­tions management and their solutions. Topics include quality control, statistical control models, aggregate scheduling and facility layout planning within context of continuous improvement philosophies.
GSC 6997 Global Supply Chain Analysis and Planning Application and synthesis of logistical concepts to solve problems encountered in the management of the supply chain.
HE 2010 Psycho-Physiological Foundations of Physical Activity and Health Physiological and psychological foundations of physical activity eval­uated using the scientific method. Laboratories demonstrate relevant concepts and principles.
HE 3990 Individual Problems in Health Solving a specific personal health problem or studying a specific community health problem under the guidance of divisional staff.
HE 5620 Performance Based Assessment in Health Education Assessment and evaluative tech­niques applied to health education, including test construction and performance-based assessment. Designed to meet assessment and evaluative competencies required for entry-level health teachers in Michigan.
HE 6430 School Health Curriculum Principles and application of school health programming. Philosophy and foundations of health education, conducting a needs assess­ment and design instruction based on the assessment, implementing and evaluating the instruction, implementation of skills in a second­ary classroom, assessment of the process.
HE 6501 Measurement and Evaluation in Community Health Evaluation Frameworks, principles, models and strategies for evaluating health education programs.
HIS 2050 Modern America Honors option (research paper/project)
HIS 3250 The Family in History This course explores the history of family and kinship from prehistory to the present, mostly in Europe and America.  It will first examine the assumptions and parameters of kinship and family: the common perceptions of the family, anthropological views of kinship, and the origins of kinship studies in the nineteenth century.  The course will then march through the history of the family: the prehistoric period (including the research of primatologists); the premodern periods of antiquity and the middle ages; and finally the modern period, where we will examine the relationship of familial patterns to industrialization, capital wealth, and the emergence of reproductive technologies.  As a research exercise, students may write a paper either on their own family history, or they may use primary sources to explore a family of history.
HIS 3425 American Environmental History American Environmental History explores the role of the environment in the broad sweep of U.S. history, examining: (1) how various human activities have historically depended on and interacted with the natural world, and how natural resources have shaped the patterns of human life; (2) the shifting attitudes toward nature held by Americans during different periods of the nation's history, and how those attitudes have shaped their cultural and political lives; and (3) how human attitudes and activities have worked together to reshape the American landscape--how people have altered the world around them, and the consequences of those alterations for natural and human communities. Students prepare research papers that focus on any one of these areas and are encouraged to explore topics pertaining to the environmental history of Detroit and utilizing local archival resources.
HIS 3440 American Medicine in the 20th Century This course examines major historical benchmarks in the making of the American medical system, from its colonial origins up to the end of the twentieth century.  It considers the ways in which medicine's response to two basic health-care questions have changed in the course of American history: What constitutes a healthy society, and What has been medicine's role in the creation of such a society? The varying answers given to these questions help to delineate the parameters of a uniquely American medical culture. Students prepare a research paper for the course on a topic of their choice, but are encouraged to consider subjects that include Detroit-related examples drawn from primary material obtained from  a variety of area archives.

HIS 3585/

HIS 5585

Science, Technology, and Society

Every day we are bombarded with more news of the latest scientific findings about a host of issues that affect our lives or our understanding of our place in the world: global warming, nutrition, medicine, the environment, genetic technologies, and Big Bang cosmology. Mechanization in the workplace, new consumer technologies, the search for alternative energy sources, and technological systems providing us with basic utilities and transportation shape our lives in profound ways that never come up for a vote and that remain difficult to shape in a thoughtful, democratic way. Mostly, science and technology seem to "just happen."

And yet, understanding these issues has never been more difficult, whether for the scientific amateur or the specialist in one field. Science and technology impact our lives in numerous ways, and we do not have a good language for discussing and evaluating science and technology and its impact on our lives in a way in which all citizens can participate. Most science courses focus on the content and methodologies needed to help train students to be practicing scientists in existing disciplinary perspectives. In order to do so, attention to the social and historical context of scientific discovery is not only neglected, but often falsified to emphasize the naturalness of the field's dominant approach. Above all else, being a citizen in the twenty-first century will involve understanding and evaluating how experts disagree.

This course examines how scientific controversies inside and outside science drive forward discovery and the development of new approaches to complex problems. We will look at a variety of episodes in modern science (mostly post-1900) that have reshaped our view of the world and transformed society. In the process, we will examine how science and technology have shaped our modern world and how science has evolved as a social enterprise. This course does not presuppose any scientific background, since the goal is to study science itself, understanding it as a complex, social institution that intersects dominant institutions such as governments, corporations, non-governmental organizations, and world cultures in numerous ways.

HIS 3650 History of Detroit History of Detroit from European contact to the present, with an emphasis on the late-19th and 20th centuries. Students participate in a service learning project (which differs each semester) that requires them to conduct research in local historical archives and contribute original research to a project developed by a community partner.
HIS 3996 African Cities The course explores the history of African cities from the earliest examples of ancient cities like Djenne-Jeno to contemporary cities.  Class readings and discussions focus on processes of urbanization, rural-urban interactions, urban planning, the emergence of urban culture, and patterns of urban life throughout the African continent.  Class assignments include a number of papers that break down the process of research and writing, with the goal of ultimately producing a research paper that is drawn from a close examination of secondary sources.
HIS 3996 Everyday Africa Written history is dominated by great leaders and landmark events, and the history of Africa is no exception. The majority of Africans in these grand narratives are often anonymous faces in the background of a story that is defined by the choices of big men and governments.  But in between the politicians, independence struggles, military coups, and development plans lies the "everyday Africa". This everyday Africa reflects the experiences of the majority who, lacking access to political power and economic status, lived life within and sometimes outside of the major historical markers. This course seeks to move beyond the conventional narrative found in textbooks and the media to examine an alternative history that not only challenges the way we understand Africa's past but also its present. Students conduct research on the historical context of newspaper articles and novels and use research and reading throughout the course to analyze and design textbooks.
HIS 4990 Directed Study Directed Study provides history majors with the unique opportunity to work one-on-one with a faculty member to do specialized reading on a particular topic of interest or to conduct research outside of the parameters of an established course. Individual directed studies typically are for 1 to 3 credits, and majors can complete a total of 6 credits during their undergraduate careers.
HIS 5040 Civil War and Reconstruction This course covers the history and historiography of the war and its aftermath. Students are required to create a piece of original historical scholarship (using primary and secondary sources) relating to either of these topics.
HIS 5210 Peopling of America, 1790-1914 Paper based on course readings and additional source(s) (with expanded research option).
HIS 5220 Changing Shape of Ethnic America, 1914-Present Paper based on course readings and additional source(s) (with expanded research option)
HIS 5241 American Slavery This course covers the history and historiography of slavery and emancipation in the U.S. as well as slavery in the nation's collective memory. Students are required to create a piece of original historical scholarship (using primary and secondary sources) relating to either of these topics.
HIS 5261 African Americans, History & Memory This course covers African American history in collective memory and representations of this history public history projects, literature, film, music, and art. Students are required to create a piece of original historical scholarship (using primary and secondary sources) relating to either of these topics.
HIS 5330 History of Greece This course examines the history of Ancient Greece.  It focuses mostly on the 6th through 4th centuries BCE.  A research paper is required and accounts for 35% of the course grade.
HIS 5340 History of Rome This course focuses on the period of the ancient Roman Republic, ca. 500 to 27 BCE.  A research paper is required and accounts for 35% of the course grade.
HIS 5360 The Early Middle Ages: 300-1000 This course introduces students to the early middle ages, the formative period in the development of European civilization.  It will explore the disintegration of the western Roman Empire, the formation of post-Roman kingdoms, the Christianization of Europe, and the transformation of the Frankish empire in the 10th century.  The course places a particular emphasis on encountering the period through the reading, analysis and discussion of the original sources.  Consequently, students will write a research paper based on primary documents only.  The paper may either be a careful analysis of the portions of assigned primary sources we have not read for class, another document of your choice, or a cluster of interrelated documents.
HIS 5370 The Later Middle Ages: 1000-1500 This course will introduce students to the later middle ages, when Europe transformed into a dynamic and creative civilization.  The course will emphasize the great social, religious, intellectual and political reforms of the high and later medieval period and the relationship of these internal changes to the cultural and geographical expansion of Europe.  The course places a particular emphasis on encountering the period through the reading, analysis and discussion of the original sources.  Consequently, students will write a research paper based on primary documents only.  The paper may either be a careful analysis of unassigned portions of primary sources we have read for class, another document of your choice, or a cluster of interrelated documents.
HIS 5385 The History of Christianity to the Reformation This course will survey the history of Christianity from Jesus to the Reformation. It will offer balanced coverage of the development of Christianity in Europe, which has become the dominant religious tradition in the West; and the spread of Christianity in Asia, Africa and the Near East, the home of the oldest Christian communities in the world.  The course places a particular emphasis on the reading and analysis of primary documents. The course places a particular emphasis on encountering the period through the reading, analysis and discussion of the original sources.  Consequently, students will write a research paper based on primary documents only.  The paper may either be a careful analysis of unassigned portions of primary sources we have read for class, another document of your choice, or a cluster of interrelated documents.
HIS 5395 Social History of the Roman Empire This course focuses on the period of the Roman Empire ca., 1 to 565 CE.  A research paper is required and accounts for 35% of the course grade.
HIS 5450 Europe in the Interwar Period This course is a survey of Europe between the two world wars.  Europe's politics, society and culture experienced a radical transformation in the 21 years from the armistice in 1918 to the German invasion of Poland in 1939 that marked the beginning of World War II.  The rise of competing ideologies of Communism, Fascism, and participatory democracy set up what many historians see as an inevitable armed clash.  We will explore what drew people to these political systems and compare the political lives within these regimes.  On the one hand, interwar Europe held great promise; the 1920's witnessed one of the most vibrant cultural booms in modern history.  Student responsibilities include a research paper and weekly reaction papers.
HIS 5480 Nazi Germany This advanced survey course concentrates on political, social, economic, as well as cultural developments in Nazi Germany. It examines the following sub-themes in depth: the collapse of the Weimar Republic; the rise of Adolf Hitler and the NSDAP; the use of terror and the creation of a new dictatorial order; ideology, mobilization, and propaganda; social, economic, and cultural revolution; the persecution of the Jews and other "outcast" groups; resistance, especially by youths and religious groups; foreign policy; the Second World War and the Holocaust; the legacy of the Third Reich.
Students will learn how to find, analyze, and interpret primary as well as secondary sources, formulate cogent arguments and theses, and improve their communication skills, both written and oral. To that end, each student will have to present a 15 minute oral presentation on one of the assigned readings and write a research paper.
HIS 5495 History of the Russian Revolution This is a documents-based history of the eight crucial years of the Russian Revolution, 1914 to 1922. Students will read primary documents to explore social, cultural, and the political history of the Revolution. Students responsibilities include a research paper and reaction papers to the documents.
HIS 5670 Modern American Cities History of US cities since 1945. Topics include suburbanization, deindustrialization, gentrification, and globalization. The major course requirement is a research paper based on primary source research in local archives.
HIS/ASN 5875 Women in Japanese History This reading-intensive course offers an introduction to women in Japan from ancient times to the present. Particular foci include changes in definitions of womanhood, women's rights in the public and private spheres, the roles that women have assumed and been assigned, and the ways in which they have interpreted and given meaning to their lives. The assignments for this course include a research paper that uses primary and secondary sources and runs 15 to 20 pages in length. Possible topics range from the depiction of women in pre-WWII literature, their experiences during the war and their role in constructing the Japanese empire, and their involvement in politics to geisha and women of the "water trade," and a history of the idea of the "good wife, wise mother." The choice of topic is open to each individual student, though the focus should be on the years since the creation of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603.
HIS 5995 Honors Seminar Majors who are pursuing departmental honors must write and defend an honors thesis. The thesis itself is typically 40-50 pages and is an expansion of the paper that the student has written for the Capstone Course for Majors (HIS 5996). Students doing the honors thesis register for HIS 5995 and, under the rubric of this course number, work closely with individual faculty to expand their research and hone their writing and analytical skills. The end result is a work of scholarship that students can revise for publication or use as a stepping stone for a master's thesis or possibly a doctoral dissertation.
HIS 5996 Capstone Course for Majors The Capstone Course for Majors is the one and only course required of all history majors. It is a research seminar and is currently offered in the fall, winter, and spring/summer. Each offering focuses on a particular topic or theme in history. Students spend the first eight weeks of the term reading and discussing the historiography of the subject and learning about historical methodology. During that period, they also select their own research topics in consultation with the course's professor and develop research proposals. During the third month of the term, students focus on conducting research with primary and secondary sources and writing their papers. Near the end of the term, students give presentations on their research and submit first drafts. They then incorporate feedback from the professor and classmates before submitting a final 20-25 page paper. A satisfactory paper fulfills the Writing Intensive requirement for graduation. To ensure that students get credit for this, they need to register for HIS 5993 the same semester when they take HIS 5996. Majors typically take the Capstone Course during their last year.
IE 1570 Operations Research: Probabilistic Models Mathematics of decision mak­ing in the face of uncertainty; using mathematical models to tackle real-world problems.
IE 4250 Engineering Data Analysis Advanced concepts for the analysis of vari­ability in engineering problems, multivariate distributions, hypothesis testing, non-parametric statistics, point and interval estimation, fitting straight lines, goodness of fit tests, contingency tables and introduc­tion to the analysis of variance.
IE 4560 Operations Research An introduction to the philosophy of operations research. Formulation of linear programming models and their solution. Duality and sensitivity analysis. The transportation model. Introduction to probabilistic modeling and applications of queueing models.
IE 4880 Engineering Design II Intensive design experience defined and exe­cuted by the student. Requires synthesis and application of skills and knowledge gained in the program.
IE 6210 Applied Engineering Statistics Anal­ysis of variability in engineering decision making; data analysis, prob­abilistic models, hypothesis testing, regression and analysis of variance.
IE 6270 Engineering Experimental Design The design of engineering experiments for manu­facturing process analysis, human factors experimentation, societal systems analysis and life testing; basic experimental design models, blocking, factorial experiments, nested designs, covariance analysis, response surface analysis, estimation of effects.
IE 6430 Computer Simulation Methods The application of discrete, continuous and com­bined simulation methods to the solution of a variety of production and service systems problems. Computer simulation and a term proj­ect involving an application are required.
ISM 3630 Business Information Systems Man­agement-oriented study of computer information systems in business; overview of the manner in which information and informa­tion technology support business processes, managerial decision-making, and organizational strategy.
ISM 5570 Data Mining Tools and techniques used to analyze large data­bases; hands-on approach to common techniques. Emphasis on application of data mining to problems in marketing, finance, and other business disciplines.
ISM 5992 Database Systems Importance of data in today's enterprise: theories, models, and techniques for designing, developing, creating and manipulating a database. Data modeling, physical database design, database implementation, intro­ductory SQL. Lecture information is reinforced using practical exer­cises.
KIN 5360 Senior Research Project Students conduct scientific research in exercise science; review of literature, data collection, assisting with data transformation, help with formal presentation of written or oral materials of findings from the study.
LAS 3710 Learning About Your Community Through Research Blend of participatory, in-service, and classroom work to enhance undergraduate research skills by linking social science theories and concepts to hands-on community-based learning opportunities.
LBS 4700 Senior Seminar Research, reflection, discussion and analysis of labor relations practice.
LBS 4990 Directed Study Supervised reading and research in labor and employment relations.
MAT 2210 Probability and Statistics Counting techniques, discrete sample spaces and probability, random variables, mean and variance, joint distribu­tions, the binomial and normal distributions, the central limit theorem, estimation and hypothesis testing
MAT 5030 Statistical Computing and Data Analysis Computational aspect of statistics for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate stu­dents. Computation of various statistical quantities by use of known statistical packages such as SAS, SPSS or BMD and the interpreta­tion of their output.
MAT 5770 Mathematical Models in Operations Research Deter­ministic and probabilistic mathematical modeling of real-world prob­lems. Linear and nonlinear programming; Markov chains; queuing theory; inventory models; Markov decision processes.
MCT 3010 Instrumentation Theory and use of measurement instruments and techniques; standards and dimensional units; exper­imental procedures and data analysis; sensors and transducers for parameters such as displacement, stress, strain, force, torque, tem­perature, motion, sound.
MKT 5410 Marketing Research and Analysis Methods of gathering and analyzing data which will facili­tate the identification and solution of marketing problems. Planning the project, data sources for exploratory and conclusive research. Questionnaire construction, sample design, and design of marketing experiments.
MKT 5490 Principles of Advertising Basic elements of advertising research, media, and creative strate­gies, including integrated marketing communications. Applications include development of advertising for local business organizations.
MKT 5850 Integrated Marketing Communications Strategy Application of basic advertising skills to development of a fully-inte­grated marketing communications program for a major national or international business; research, media, creative, and promotion strategies.
MSE 5390 Experimental Methods for Biomaterials Hands-on and demonstration exposure to laboratory techniques for the assessment of biological tissues and artificial biomaterials.
MUA 3990 Directed Study Individualized research and work in a particular aspect of music under the supervision of a faculty member.
MUA 5700 Music Business III Intensive individual research and study of specific areas of the music business and music industry, on local, national and global levels. Artist management, nonprofit organizations, arts advo­cacy/citizenship, and arts entrepreneurship. Other areas of research/investigation may include live concert production/touring, film music, music video, radio/television, marketing/communications, music business/industry associations, social media and technological/digi­tal implications. Comprehensive individual and collaborative team research projects, music business projects, and internship/career networking development.
MUA 5800 Music Business Individual study of specific areas of music business/management and the music industry at the local, national, and international levels. Areas may include: live concert production/touring, film music and music video, marketing/communication, music business/industry associations, and technology/digital implications. Comprehensive research project required.
MUH 3990 Directed Study Individualized research and work in music history or literature under the supervision of a faculty member.
MUT 3990 Directed Study Individualized research and work in music theory or composition under the supervision of a faculty member.
NE 6031 Methodologies and Research in Oral History: Near Eastern and Asian Societies Techniques, methodologies and legalities of studying and interpreting alternative data for historical research. Social and cultural sensitivi­ties of Near Eastern and Asian societies and the gathering of histori­cal information through oral research.
NFS 5140 Laboratory Techniques in Nutrition and Food Science Basic modern and classical analytical techniques and instruments in nutrition and food science. Background theory to principles of instru­mental assays. Procedures for evaluation of macro and micro food components analysis. Physiological functions relevant to nutrition.
NFS 5996 Research in Food Science and Nutrition Minimum of 3 hours of lab research for each credit. Research projects under direction of faculty active in research.
NUR 3400 Introduction to Nursing Research Introduction to the research process and research utilization in nursing practice. Research problems, access and retrieval of research literature and databases, reading and cri­tiquing research studies, and individual and organizational strategies to promote research-based practice.
OT 3070 Occupational Therapy Research Basic concepts and principles of research, terminology used to describe research, and effective use of research information for evidence-based practice in occupational therapy. Didactic and experiential components.
PCS 5999 Special Readings/Research Intensive study with faculty member on peace-related topic; may include study abroad projects. For co-majors and non-majors.
PCS 6000 Senior Seminar in Peace and Conflict Studies Offered for under­graduate credit only. Students work with faculty on a semester research or creative project relevant to concepts studied in the pro­gram; serves as capstone program evaluative course.
PHI 1050 Critical Thinking Knowledge and skills relevant to the critical evaluation of claims and arguments. Topics will include: the formulation and identification of deductively and inductively warranted conclusions from available evi­dence; the assessment of the strengths of arguments; the assess­ment of consistency, inconsistency, implications, and equivalence among statements; the identification of fallacious patterns of infer­ence; and the recognition of explanatory relations among statements.
PHY 6780 Research Methods in Biomedical Physics Introduction to laboratory experience in biomedical physics research.
PHY 6860 Computational Physics Introduction to using computers to model physical systems; description of techniques in numerical anal­ysis including linear algebra, integration, algebraic and differential equations, data analysis and symbolic algebra.
PPR 6070 Principles of Pharmacoeconomics Principles and tools used in economic evaluation of medications and technologies used in pharmacoeco­nomic research.
PS 3600 Methods of Political Inquiry Techniques of political science research: data gathering techniques, especially survey design; data processing and analysis using com­puters; and the interpretation and reporting of statistical results.
PS 4460 Techniques of Policy Analysis Introduction to several major techniques used by policy analysts to measure and evaluate the effectiveness, efficiency, and equity of public policies and programs. Approaches and methodologies con­sidered will include systems analysis, benefit-cost analysis, and sim­ulation. This course involves quantitative data analysis. Students are expected to be proficient in basic algebra and to be computer literate.
PS 5630 Statistics and Data Analysis in Political Science I Introduction to statistical description and inference in the study of pol­itics, administration and public policy. Introduction to statistical analy­sis using microcomputers.
PS 6640 Statistics and Data Analysis in Political Science II Modern statistical theory applied to the study of politics, administration, and public policy. Multivariate analy­sis: multiple regression, logistic regression, path analysis, and factor analysis.
PSC 6800 Introduction to Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences This course is required for all graduate students in the Pharmaceutical Sciences PhD and MS programs. The course is also available (upon request from the instructor) for WSU Undergraduate students interested in a career in the biomedical sciences. The course consists mainly in three parts: (1) Introduction to Research and Hypothesis Testing, including presentations by PSC research faculty, (2) presentations related to research compliance, including laboratory safety, hazardous waste handling, IRB and IACUC committees and (3) elementary thru intermediate biostatistical analyses.
PSC 6801 Introduction to Research: Responsible Conduct of Research Overview of principles underlying the responsible conduct for bio­medical research; intended for all students interested in pursuing a career in biomedical research.
PSL 5010 Individual Research PSL 5010 Individual Research-gives upper level undergraduate students the opportunity to: earn course credit while gaining direct experience in a functioning research lab under the supervision of a faculty mentor; receive an introduction to experimental protocols & current related scientific literature. This is a variable credit course so the time commitment is based on the number of credits register for with the understanding that the time required in the lab will be a minimum of double the number of credits. As a research course, the final grades will be determined based on the following: 1) Attendance in the lab per the arrangements made between the student and mentor based on the number of registered credits. 2) A 5-10 minute presentation to the PSL 5010 students and mentors at the end of the semester. This presentation should outline the student's research experience. 3) Written summary of the student's research and experience. This summary must be signed by the student's mentor.
PSL 6300 Biotechnology: Techniques & Appilcations Students will gain a clear & concise understanding of various biotechnical methodologies currently being used in research & industry so they can consider the applications of these methodologies during their current and future scientific inquiries. Serves as a theoretical foundation course to research-tract students to provide information/serve as a 'guide' course for students considering a career in biomedical research
PSL 6310 Biotechnology: Techniques & Applications Lab Designed to follow PSL6300; students will choose one of the biotechnology techniques discussed in PSL 6300 and spend the semester in an active research laboratory learning the practice of the technique through hands-on experiments. Serve as practical reenforcement of principles & ideas taught in PSL 6300; since these techniques are essentially universal to basic science research, it can assist students in determining the type of research they wish to pursue for their MS or PhD.
PSY 3010 Statistical Methods in Psychology Principles and compu­tational methods that apply to quantitative aspects of psychological procedure; elementary correlation theory and prediction, sampling problems, tests of hypotheses, elementary test theory, interpretation of results.
PSY 4020 Research in Psychology Primarily for students interested in future graduate studies in planning and evaluation of psychological research. Critical evaluation of scientific literature and the planning and development of psychological research proposals. The range of research methods and areas in psychology.
PSY 4110 Psychological Testing and Measurement Principles of psy­chological measurement, development, administration, and analysis of psychological tests. Quantitative methods of assessing reliability and validity of psychological test scores. Interpretation and applica­tion of psychological testing in educational, clinical and industrial set­tings.
PSY 5020 Research Methods in Psychology: Honors Basic principles of research design in psychology: reliability and validity of measurement of psychological constructs, experimental design, con­trol for confounding in correlation studies, multivariate analysis.
PSY 5100 Applied Statistics in Psychology General linear model, coding techniques, multiple correlation and regression, analy­sis of variance and covariance, planned and post hoc tests, use of statistical computer packages.
PSY 6570 Research Methods in Industrial/Organizational Psychology Field and lab research meth­ods for workplace settings.
SLP 4998 Honors Seminar Bibliographic and research experi­ences; review of recent literature; research project
SOC 3710 Learning about Your Community Through Research Blend of participatory, in-service, and classroom work to enhance undergraduate research skills by linking social science theories and concepts to hands-on community-based learning opportunities
SOC 3990 Directed Study for Sociology Majors This directed study course allows students to enroll in elective course credit while working one-on-one with full-time faculty members in the Department of Sociology. Students will work on an on-going faculty research project, helping with either the development or implementation of a research project. Students will specifically gain experience in writing literature reviews, developing research proposals and questionnaires, and collect and analyze sociological data.

How do students get involved in the program? 

Students must initiate contact with individual faculty members if they would like to work on research with them. The Academic Advisor in Sociology (Stacie Moser, stacie.moser@wayne.edu) can help students make contacts with individual faculty members, if students do not have a faculty member in mind. Students should think about working with faculty members who are working on a research topic that interests them, so students should review our website for information on Faculty Research in Sociology before making contact with individual faculty members.

Are there special requirements to participate?

It is preferable if students are Sociology majors or minors. Students must have at least a 3.3 GPA, and must have completed SOC 4200 with a B+ or better. An individual faculty must also agree to work with this student and give permission to the student to enroll in this directed study course.

Students must obtain permission from the instructor of SOC 4600 before registering for the course.

Who should students contact for more information?

Contact the Academic Advisor in Sociology (Stacie Moser, stacie.moser@wayne.edu) for more information on this research opportunity.

SOC 4200 Methods of Social Research An elementary research methods course that covers the process of doing social research, including research design, data collection techniques, processing and analysis of data, as well as the interpretation of data.
SOC 4220 Computing Applications for the Social Sciences Application of computers in conducting social research: computer-aided statistical analysis; management of data sets and calculation of statistics.
SOC 4600 Internship in Sociology This is a three credit internship course in Sociology that requires students to complete a specific number of hours at an organization or agency that relates to their career interests. Academic assignments include readings, keeping a daily journal, submitting an approved resume, and completing a research paper. The research paper requires students to review scholarly research on a topic that relates to their internship, and discuss the relationship between the scholarly research and their internship experience. All assignments require students to apply academic knowledge to "real world" settings. Students can enroll if all prerequisites are met and they obtain permission of the instructor. 

Are there special requirements to participate?

Sociology major or minor, GPA of 3.3 or better, standing of junior or senior, completed Soc 2000, Soc 3300 and Soc 4200.
Students must obtain permission from the instructor of SOC 4600 before registering for the course.

Who should students contact for more information?

Contact the Academic Advisor in Sociology (Stacie Moser, stacie.moser@wayne.edu) for more information on this research opportunity.
SOC 4996 Sociology Capstone Course Students choose a specific researchable topic related to the discipline and explore possible theoretical approaches. In addition, students develop a research proposal related to a topic which will include research methodology.
SOC 6280 Social Statistics Basic techniques for organizing and describing social data, measures of central tendency and dispersion, probability theory and hypothesis testing, tests of significance and confidence intervals, measures of association for two variables, anal­ysis of variance.
SW 3810 Research Methods, Data Analysis, and Practice Evaluation I Descriptive research methods for social work concepts and skills of problem for­mulation; research design; description and critical analysis of research studies; integration of descriptive statistics and data analy­sis within social work context.
SW 4810 Research Methods, Data Analysys, and Practice Evaluation II Integration of inferen­tial statistics and components of quantitative and qualitative designs appropriate for evaluating service delivery and related policy.
SW 8035 Techniques of Quantitative Data Analysis Focus on advanced analytic techniques with quantitative data. Instruction will lean towards social advocacy framed within social work values and ethics. Use of statistical procedures in Excel and the proper interpretation of findings.
SW 8045 Techniques of Data Interpretation and Presentation Presenting case, issue, or problem in context of public policy with a graphical presentation of data to a range of different audiences within the framework of social work values and ethics
THR 3760 World Performance Studies II Advanced research/studio. Emphasis on solo works and their mak­ers; may include Anna Deveare Smith, Eric Bogosian, Laurie Ander­son. Creation of solo performances.
THR 4998 Capstone Honors Thesis Culminating project for theatre honors students: research for scholarly/creative activity.
UP 3020 Spatial Organization: Concepts and Techniques Introduction to spatial organization concepts, survey research proce­dures and statistical techniques. Topics include: geographic prob­lems, research design, models, data sources, sampling, questionnaire design and descriptive statistics.
UP 3600 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems Theory and application of computer-based systems for the analysis and rep­resentation of spatial data.
UP 4600 Advanced Geographic Information Systems Application of GIS to analyses of spa­tially-referenced data.
US 4420 Methods for Urban Studies Introduction to relevant data sources, such as the U.S. Census, American Community Survey, and County Business Patterns; presentation of quantitative and spatial data using geographic information systems and spatial mapping; introduction to basic statistics for use in urban studies.
US 4620 Urban Studies Senior Capstone Research Development and application of research design to specified urban problems.
US 6050 Independent Field Study Observation and interpretation of data in the field.

We will create and advance knowledge, prepare a diverse student body to thrive, and positively impact local and global communities.